The Structure and Function Of the Immune System | Parts & Cells

Your immune system defends the body from infection. It is made up of a complex network of cells, tissues and organs in your body. An underactive or overactive immune system can cause health issues.The immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends people against germs and microorganisms every day. In this most cases, the immune system does on great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. the But sometimes problems of with the immune system can be lead to illness and infection.

What Is The Immune System:-

The immune system is found in:-
1.skin
2.bone marrow
3.the thymus, a gland in your upper chest
4.white blood cells, which fight infection
5.lymph, a milky fluid carrying white blood cells
6.the lymphatic system, a network of tiny vessels that carry lymph around the body
7.lymph nodes, small lumps in your groin, armpit, around your neck and elsewhere
8.the spleen, an organ under your ribs on the left

9.mucous membranes, like the lining of the inside of your mouth 

How DoesThe Immune System Work:-

Our immune system is essential for our survival. Without immune system, our bodies an would be open to attack from bacteria, viruses, parasites, and more. It’s is our are immune system that keeps us healthy as we drift through a sea of this pathogens.This vast network of cells and tissues is constantly on the lookout for invaders, and once an enemy is spotted, a complex attack is mountedThe immune system is spread throughout the body and involves many types of cells, organs, proteins, and tissues. In this a Crucially, it can distinguish our tissue from foreign tissue self from non-self. Dead and faulty cells are also recognized and cleared away by the immune system.As long as our body’s system of defense is running smoothly, we do not notice the immune system.

The Immune System Cells :-

 The immune system is a system of a biological structures and processes within a organism that a protects against in disease. The state of protection from infectious disease is called immunity. In Immunity has a less specific component called innate immunity. Innate immunity are the provides the first line of defense against infection. Most of components of innate immunity are in present prior to the onset of infection and constitute a set of this disease resistant mechanisms that are not specific to particular pathogen but include in cellular and molecular components that recognise classes of molecules peculiar to frequently encountered pathogens.Although most of these cells are found in the blood, their responses to microbes usually occur in lymphoid and other tissues.

Immune System Structure:-

The Immunotoxicology is the study of in injury to the immune system that can be result from occupational, inadvertent and therapeutic exposure to variety of environmental chemicals or biologic materials. The field has a two broad research areas are One involves studies of the suppression of immunity the other concerns studies of enhanced or excessive immune system response, such as allergy or autoimmunity. The immune system acts an a passive target for this suppressive xenobiotics and exposure to them can result in an increased incidence of infectious disease and neoplasia because of the host’s inability to respond.

Immune System Parts:-

The immune system is like a police force. It patrols everywhere, and if it finds a disturbance, it calls for back-up. In this way, it is different from other systems in that it has to be able to react in any part of the body.


1.Bone marrow and thymus:- If the immune system is a police force, the bone marrow is the police academy because this is where the different types of immune system cells are created. All cells of the immune system are created in the bone marrow from a common type of starting cell, called a stem cell. These stem cells later develop into specific cell types, including red blood cells, platelets (important for blood clotting), and white blood cells (important for immune responses). The cell generation and differentiation process occurs every day for as long as we live.


2.Lymph nodes and vessels:- Lymph nodes are tissues full of immune cells. These nodes are located strategically throughout the body. Some are better known than others. For example, many people are familiar with tonsils and adenoids in the neck, but may not be aware of Peyer’s patches, which are lymph nodes that line the intestine. Numerous unnamed lymph nodes also exist throughout the body; in fact, virtually every corner of our body has some group of lymph nodes associated with it. Lymph nodes tend to be most prevalent in areas near body openings, such as the digestive tract and the genital region, because this is where pathogens most often enter the body.


3.Spleen:-The spleen is the largest internal organ of the immune system, and as such, it contains a large number of immune system cells. Indeed, about 25 percent of the blood that comes from the heart flows through the spleen on every beat. As blood circulates through the spleen, it is filtered to detect pathogens. As pathogens are detected, immune system cells are activated and increase in number to neutralize the pathogen. The spleen is particularly important in protecting people from bacterial infections, such as meningococcus and pneumococcus. So, while people can live without a spleen, it is important for them to be up to date on vaccines that protect against these infections because they are at greater risk of suffering from them.


4.Skin:-Sometimes the skin is described as the largest organ of the immune system because it covers the entire body. this People may not a think about the skin as a being part of this system, but the reality is that skin serves as an important physical barrier from many of the disease-causing agents that we come into contact wit

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